In 1833, a group of Cape Codders organized Barnstable County Mutual Fire Insurance Company. They succeeded in providing residents of Cape Cod with fire insurance of unquestioned reliability by combining sound underwriting principles with knowledge of the territory and its people. The Company has grown and changed, slowly for the first one hundred years, and at an accelerating pace in the last seven decades. In 1994, the word "Fire" was removed from the name to reflect the fact the Company offered more than just fire insurance.

The Barnstable is a Mutual Insurance Company, owned by its policyholders. The directors are the elected representatives of the policyholders and play a key role in the Company's affairs, as trustees for the other policyholders, and as the Company's representatives in their communities. The directors elect company management.

Today the Barnstable sells homeowners, renters and personal liability insurance exclusively through twenty-six independent agents on Cape Cod, Marthas Vineyard and the South Coast of Massachusetts. The Company maintains an A.M.Best rating of A (Excellent) for its strong financial position.